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Chronic Respiratory Diseases, Emphysema

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Emphysema, © American Institute of Preventive Medicine:"Over 1 million Americans are forced to lead restricted lives because they have emphysema, a chronic lung condition. With emphysema, the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs are destroyed. The lung loses its elasticity, along with its ability to take in oxygen. The vast majority of people with emphysema are cigarette smokers aged 50 or older. In fact, emphysema is sometimes called "the smoker's disease" because of its strong link with cigarettes. Exposure to irritants in the workplace and environment can also cause the disease. Only 3 to 5 percent of all cases of emphysema are caused by genetic factors."
http://www.healthy.net/asp/templates/article.asp?PageType=article&ID=1475

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What Is Emphysema? American Lung Association:"Emphysema is a condition in which there is over-inflation of structures in the lungs known as alveoli or air sacs. This over-inflation results from a breakdown of the walls of the alveoli, which causes a decrease in respiratory function (the way the lungs work) and often, breathlessness. Early symptoms of emphysema include shortness of breath and cough. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis together comprise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)."
The American Lung Association®
1740 Broadway NY, NY 10019
212-315-8700, info@lungusa.org
http://www.lungusa.org/

  • Alpha-1 Related Emphysema, The American Lung Association®:"Alpha-1 related emphysema is caused by an inherited lack of a protective protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). In normal and healthy individuals, AAT protects the lungs from a natural enzyme (called neutrophil elastase) that helps fight bacteria and clean up dead lung tissue. However, this enzyme can also eventually damage lung tissue if not neutralized by AAT. If allowed to progress, this form of emphysema becomes chronic and lung tissue continues to be destroyed; eventually it is fatal if the progress is not slowed down or halted."
    The American Lung Association®
    1740 Broadway NY, NY 10019
    212-315-8700, info@lungusa.org
    http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/luna1ad.html

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Who gets Emphysema? The Lung Association, Canadian:"Persons with emphysema are, for the most part, males between 50 and 70 years old. Women get emphysema, too, but so far, not as often as men. However these statistics are changing as women are starting to smoke more, and at an earlier age. A very high percentage of the people who have emphysema smoke cigarettes and have been heavy smokers for many years. Frequently, they live in areas where air pollution is a constant problem. "
http://www.lung.ca/diseases/emphysema.html

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Emphysema, Encylcopedia.com:"Pronounced As: emfism , pathological or physiological enlargement or overdistention of the air sacs of the lungs. A major cause of pulmonary insufficiency in chronic cigarette smokers, emphysema is a progressive disease that commonly occurs in conjunction with chronic bronchitis. It is found predominantly in people over age 45, but a genetically based early-onset form also exists."
http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/04096.html

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Emphysema Foundation For Our Right To Survive:"If you are looking for more information or support about Emphysema or other Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), you have found the most energetic and comprehensive Emphysema organization on the web. As well as providing a very vital support mailing list and educational resource for its members, we are working to promote deeper research for more effective treatment and, hopefully, a cure for Emphysema and related lung disease Be an activist in managing your own disease and join our EFFORTS to help promote vital medical research. If we don't do this, who will?"
Emphysema Foundation For Our Right To Survive
Claycomo Plaza * 411 NE US HWY 69 * Claycomo, Mo. 64119 * FAX 816-413-0176
EFFORTS-request@HOME.EASE.LSOFT.COM
http://www.emphysema.net/

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Emphysema, Office of Medical Informatics Education (OMIE), Johns Hopkins University:"Compliance of the lung in emphysema is significantly above normal; the lung becomes easy to distend but empties slowly. This results in a chronically overinflated lung (high total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume), which lessens the curvature of the diaphragm, making it less efficient in generating even the small swings in pleural pressure necessary for breathing. Pulmonary function tests on a patient with emphysema will reveal a compromised expiratory flow (due to their low lung recoil), including a low FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ratio."
http://omie.med.jhmi.edu/res_phys/Encyclopedia/Emphysema/Emphysema.HTML

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Emphysema And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Life Extension Foundation:"Several lung diseases are collectively known as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), including asthmatic bronchitis, chronic bronchitis (with normal airflow), chronic obstructive bronchitis, bullous disease, and emphysema. About 11% of the population of the United States suffers from COPD, with the disease becoming increasingly common among older women. According to the Mayo Clinic, COPD kills 85,000 people a year in the United States."
Life Extension Foundation
1100 W. Commercial Blvd., Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309
954-766-8433 or 800-544-4440
http://www.lef.org/protocols/prtcl-046.shtml

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National Emphysema Foundation:"When you, a friend, or loved one is diagnosed with emphysema, knowing that The National Emphysema Foundation is working to counter and control its afflictions provides solace and hope. Since 1971, when it was founded, the foundation has successfully carried out its mission; to improve the quality of those who have contracted emphysema, asthma and related diseases, through education, research and direct patient care."
National Emphysema Foundation,
15 Stevens Street, Norwalk, CT 06850
gary@emphysemafoundation.org Fax No : 203-854-9191
http://emphysemafoundation.org/

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Emphysematous Lung, Pulmonary Pathology (Photos, pictures and cross sections):"On cut section of the lung, the dilated airspaces with emphysema are seen. Although there tends to be some scarring with time because of superimposed infections, the emphysematous process is one of loss of lung parenchyma, not fibrosis. There are two major types of emphysema: centrilobular (centriacinar) and panlobular (panacinar). The former involves primarily the upper lobes while the latter involves all lung fields, particularly the bases. Centrilobular emphysema occurs with loss of the respiratory bronchioles in the proximal portion of the acinus, with sparing of distal alveoli. This pattern is most typical for smokers."
https://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/LUNGHTML/LUNG057.html

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National Emphysema Treatment Trial:"For patients with emphysema, a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), inhaling can be as difficult as breathing through a pillow. There is no cure for emphysema, but treatment options are being investigated that may provide a breath of hope. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) was established to determine if lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is effective in the treatment of emphysema."
1-800-314-2492
http://www.emphysemastudy.org/

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National Emphysema Treatment Trial (Nett): Evaluation Of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery For Emphysema:"The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), is the first multi-center clinical trial designed to determine the role, safety, and effectiveness of bilateral lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in the treatment of emphysema. Emphysema is a chronic lung condition that is a major cause of death and disability in the U.S. If LVRS is found to be beneficial, then a secondary objective will be to develop criteria for identifying patients who are likely to benefit from the procedure."
NHLBIinfo@rover.nhlbi.nih.gov
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/nett/lvrsweb.htm

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Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis, About National Jewish National Jewish Medical and Research Center:"Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, or COPD for short, is a lung disease that affects millions of people. COPD includes diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. A person with COPD may have either emphysema or chronic bronchitis, but most have both. Some people with COPD may also have "asthma-like" symptoms."
National Jewish Medical and Research Center
1400 Jackson Street Denver, CO 80206
Telephone: 1-800-222-LUNG (5864). or (outside the United States) 303-388-4461 (7700), lungline@njc.org
http://nationaljewish.org/understanding/emphsemachronicbronchitis.html

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Surgery Helps Emphysema Patients Breathe Easier, Saint Louis University, Missouri:"The School of Medicine is one of 17 centers participating in a national trial to examine the role of surgery in the treatment of end-stage emphysema. Saint Louis University is the only central Midwestern institution involved in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. The operation is called thoracoscopic lung volume reduction surgery. This procedure is being compared with medical therapy to determine which alternative provides greater relief from the severe shortness of breath experienced by patients with end-stage emphysema."
Joan Osterloh, at 577-8341. http://www.slu.edu/publications/gc/v5-5/news_18.shtml

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Emphysema: How can I prevent emphysema? Temple Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine: Health Information for Patients:"The most effective way to prevent emphysema is never to smoke cigarettes. If you already smoke, quit now. The fewer years you smoke, the less likely it is that you will develop emphysema. If you already have emphysema, but you stop smoking before much of your lungs have been damaged, the disease may progress more slowly. Also, if you stop smoking you are less likely to have problems with frequent bronchial infections."
http://www.temple.edu/pulmonary/patient/diseases/emphysema.html

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Clinical Trials For Emphysema:

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Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, Lycos Health, WebMD Corporation:"An excellent overview of emphysema and chronic bronchitis - including risk factors, causes, symptoms, and similar conditions. Recently updated."
http://webmd.lycos.com/content/dmk/dmk_article_53212

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Last updated by Andrew Lopez, RN on December 1, 2017


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